Surgical resection has long been the primary treatment for upper GI cancers. Minimally invasive surgery and endoscopic treatment modalities have been used with increasing frequency to prevent the mortality and morbidity caused by conventional surgery. With these new interventions, less invasive and less costly treatment protocols that do not have any negative impact on oncologic outcomes, preserve physiological functions, and improve the quality of life after surgery have been developed. Different endoscopic surgery techniques have been identified, and these can be divided into two main categories: endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Patients with very low risk for lymph node metastasis and local recurrence are ideal candidates for endoscopic surgery.