Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD)
ESD is among the most advanced and least invasive treatment for early GIT cancers. The procedure involves complete resection of the cancer using endoscopy alone. Although different results from various clinical centers were obtained, rates of 65%-100% for en bloc resection, 68%-95% for complete resection, 94%-100% for 5-year recurrence-free survival and 95%-100% for 5-year survival have been reported for ESD. According to a meta-analysis examining 3548 EGC cases and comparing EMR and ESD, ESD produced higher en bloc resection rates, higher complete resection rates and lower recurrence rates.